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Milk thistle

(Silybum marianum)


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Brown D. Phytotherapy review and commentary: silymarin educational monograph. Townsend Letter for Doctors November 1994; 1282-85.

Ferenci P, Dragosics B, Dittrich H, et al. Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Journal of Hepatology 1989; 9: 105-113.

Hikino H, Kiso Y, Wagner H, et al. Antihepatotoxic actions of flavonolignans from Silybum marianum fruits. Planta Med 1984; 50: 248-250.

Katiyar SK, Korman NJ, Mukhtar H, et al. Protective effects of silymarin against photocarcinogenesisin a mouse skin model. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1997; 89(8): 556-566.

Lirussi F, Okolicsanyi L. Cytoprotection in the nineties: experience with ursodeoxycholic acidand silymarin in chronic liver disease. Acta Physiol Hungar 1992; 80(1-4): 363-7.

Miadonna A, Tedeschi A, Leggieri E, et al. Effects of silybin on histaminerelease from human basophil leucocytes. Br J Clin Pharmac 1987; 24: 747-752.

Muzes G, Deak GY, Láng I, et al. Effect of the bioflavonoid silymarin on the in vitro activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Acta Physiol Hung 1991; 78(1): 3-9.

Nassuato G, Iemmolo RM, Strazzabosco M, et al. Effect of silibinin on biliary lipidcomposition: experimental and clinical study. J Hepatol 1991; 12: 290-5.

Palasciano G, Portincasa P, Palmieri V, et al. The effect of silymarin on plasma levels of malon-dialdehyde in patientsreceiving long-term treatment with psychotropic drugs. Current Therapeutic Research1994; 55(5): 537-545.

Pares A, Planas R, Torres M, et al. Effects of silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosisof the liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized and multicenter trial.Journal of Hepatology 1998; 28: 615-621.

Valenzuela A, Aspillaga M, Vial S, et al. Selectivity of silymarin on the increase of the glutathionecontent in different tissues of the rat. Planta Med 1989; 55: 420-422.

Velussi M, Cernigoi AM, Viezzoli L, et al. Silymarin reduces hyperinsulinemia, malondialdehydelevels, and daily insulin need in cirrhotic diabetic patients. Current TherapeuticResearch 1993; 53 (5): 533-545.