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(Piper methysticum)


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Backhauss C, Krieglstein J. Extract of kava (Piper methysticum) and its methysticin constituents protect brain tissue against ischemic damage in rodents. European Journal of Pharmacology 1992; 215: 265-269.

Brüggemann VF, Meyer HJ. The analgesic effects of the kava constituents dihydrokavain (DHK) and dihydromethysticin (DHM) [German]. Arzneim-Forsch 1963; 13: 407-409. (German paper with English summary)

Davies LP, Drew CA, Duffield P, et al. Kava pyrones and resin: studies on GABA-A, GABA-B, and benzodiazepine binding sites in rodent brain. Pharmacology and Toxicology 1992; 71: 120-126.

Gleitz J, Beile A, Peters T. Kavain inhibits veratridine-activated voltage-dependent Na+-channels in synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebral cortex. Neuropharmacology 1995; 34(9): 1133-1138.

Heinze H. Effects of oxazepam and an extract of kava roots (Piper methysticum) on event-related potentials in a word recognition test. Pharmacoelectroencephalography 1993; 27: 46-53

Heinze HJ, Münthe TF, Steitz J, et al. Pharmacopsychological effects of oxazepam and kava-extract in a visual search paradigm assessed with event-related potentials. Pharmacopsychiat 1994; 27: 224-130.

Holm E. Studies on the profile of neurophysiological effects of D,L-Kavain: cerebral sites of action and sleep-wakefulness-rhythm in animals [German]. Arzneim--Forsch/Drug Res 1991; 41(7): 673-683. (German paper with English summary).

Jamieson DD, Duffield PH. The antinociceptive actions of kava components in mice. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 1990; 17: 495-508.

Lehmann E, Kinzler E, Friedemann J, et al. Efficacy of a special kava extract (Piper methysticum) in patients with states of anxiety, tension, and excitedness of non-mental origin a double blind placebo-controlled study of four weeks treatment. Phytomedicine 1996; III(2): 113-119.

Lehmann E, Klieser E, Klimke A, et al. The efficacy of cavain in patients suffering from anxiety. Pharmacopsychiat 1989; 22: 258-262.

Lindenberg VD, Pitule-Schödel H. D,L-Kavain in comparison with Oxazepam in anxiety states: double blind clinical trial [German]. Fortschritte der Therapie 1990; 108(2): 31-34. (German with English summary).

Münte TF, Heinze HJ, Matzke M, et al. Effects of oxazepam and an extract of kava roots (Piper methysticum) on event-related potentials in a word recognition task. Neuropsychobiology 1993; 27: 46-53.

Schulz H, Jobert M, Hübner WD.The quantitative EEG as a screening instrument to identify sedative effects of single doses of plant extracts in comparison with diazepam. Phytomedicine 1998; 5(6): 449-458.

Seitz U, Schüle A, Gleitz J. [3H]-Monoamine uptake inhibition properties of kava pyrones. Planta Med 1997; 63: 548-549.

Singh YN. Effects of kava on neuromuscular transmission and muscle contractility. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1983; 7: 267-276.

Volz H-P, Kieser M. Kava-kava extract WS 1490 versus placebo in anxiety disorders -- a randomized placebo-controlled 25-week outpatient trial. Pharmacopsychiat 1997; 30:1-5.