Herb Research Foundation
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(Panax spp)


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Ahn B-Z, Kim S-I. Relation between structure and cytotoxic activity of panaxydol analogs against L1210 cells [German]. Archiv der Pharmazie 1988; 321: 61-63 (German paper with English abstract).

Avakian EV, Evonuk E. Effect of Panax ginseng extract on tissue glycogen and adrenal cholesterol depletion during prolonged exercise. Planta Medica 1979; 36: 43-48.

Bhattacharya SK, Mitra SK. Anxiolytic activity of Panax ginseng roots: an experimental study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1991; 34: 87-92.

Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Annual Review of Pharmacology 1969; 9: 419-430.

Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. Pharmacological investigation of glycosides from ginseng and eleutherococcus. Lloydia 1969; 32(1):46-51.

Forgo I, Kayasseh L, Staub JJ. Effect of a standardized ginseng extract on general well-being, reaction capacity, pulmonary function and gonadal hormones [German]. Medizinische Welt 1981; 32(19): 751-756 (English translation of German paper, with additional French summary).

Forgo I, Schimert G. The duration of effect of the standardized ginseng extract G115® in healthy competitive athletes [German]. Notobene Medici 1985; 15(9): 636-640 (English translation of German paper, with additional French summary).

Fulder S, Kataria M, Gethyn-Smith B. A double-blind clinical trial of Panax ginseng in aged subjects. Presented at the Fourth International Ginseng Symposium, Daejeon, Korea, 18-20 September, 1984.

Gillis CN. Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide link? Biochemical Pharmacology 1997; 54: 1-8.

Hallstrom C, Fulder S, Carruthers M. Effects of ginseng on the performance of nurses on night duty. Comparative Medicine East and West 1982; 6(4): 277-282.

Le Gal M, Cathebras P, Struby K. Pharmaton capsules in the treatment of functional fatigue: a double-blind study versus placebo evaluated by a new methodology. Phytotherapy Research 1996; 10: 49-53.

Matsunaga H, Katano M, Yamamoto H, et al. Studies on the panaxytriol of Panax ginseng CA Meyer: isolation, determination and antitumor activity. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1989; 37(5): 1279-1281.

Matsunaga H, Katano M, Yamamoto H, et al. Cytotoxic activity of polyacetylene compounds in Panax ginseng CA Meyer. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1990; 38(12): 3480-3482.

Matsunaga H, Saita T, Nagumo R, et al. A possible mechanism for the cytotoxicity of a polyacetylenic alcohol, panaxytriol: inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 1995; 35; 291-296.

Mochizuki M, Yoo YC, Matsuzawa K, et al. Inhibitory effect of tumor metastasis in mice by saponins, ginsenoside-Rb2, 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3, of Red ginseng. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1995; 18(9): 1197-1202.

Nitta H, Matsumoto K, Shimizu M, et al. Panax ginseng extract improves the performance of aged Fischer 344 rats in radial maze task but not in operant brightness discrimination task. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1995; 18(9): 1286-1288.

Petkov W. Panax ginseng-ein Reaktivitätsregler [German]. Pharmaceutische Zeitung 1968; 31(1):1281-1286 (German paper with English summary).

Ramachandran U, Divekar HM, Grover SK. New experimental model for the evaluation of adaptogenic products. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1990; 29: 275-281.

Rhee YH, Lee SP, Honda K, et al. Panax ginseng extract modulates sleep in unrestrained rats. Psychopharmacology 1990; 101(4): 486-488.

Saito H, Tsuchiya M, Naka S, et al. Effects of Panax ginseng root on conditioned avoidance response in rats. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 1977; 27: 509-516.

Saito H, Lee Y-M, Handa S. The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in superior cervical ganglion and sub-maxillary gland of senescent and irradiated mice. In: Usdin E, Kvetnansky R, Kopin IJ, eds. Catecholamines and Stress: Recent Advances. New York: Elsevier North-Holland, 1980: 371-374.

Shibata S, Tanaka O, Shoji J, et al. Chemistry and pharmacology of Panax. In: Wagner H, Hikino H, Farnsworth NR, eds. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Vol 1. London: Academic Press, 1985.

Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1995; 18(10): 1373-1375.

Sticher O. Biochemical, pharmaceutical, and medicinal perspective of ginseng. In: Lawson LD, Bauer R, eds. Phytomedicines of Europe. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1998; 222-240.

Sun X-B, Matsumoto T, Kiyohara H, et al. Cytoprotective activity of pectic polysaccharides from the root of Panax ginseng. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1991; 31: 101-107.

Watanabe H, Ohta H, Imamura L, et al. Effect of Panax ginseng on age-related changes in the spontaneous motor activity and dopaminergic nervous system in the rat. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 1991; 55(1): 51-56.

Wiklund I, Karlberg J, Lund B. A double-blind comparison of the effect on quality of life of a combination of vital substances including standardized ginseng G115 and placebo. Current Therapeutic Research 1994; 55(1): 32-42.

Yuan W-X, Wu X-J, Yang F-X, et al. Effects of ginseng root saponins on brain monoamines and serum corticosterone in heat-stressed mice [Chinese]. Acta Pharmaologica Sinica 1989; 10(6): 492-496 (English translation of Chinese paper).

Yun T-K, Choi SY. A case-control study of ginseng intake and cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology 1990; 19(4): 871-876.