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(Allium sativum)


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Adetumbi M, Javor GT, Lau BHS. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1986; 30(3): 499-501.

Adler AJ, Holub BJ. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 445-450.

Ahsan M, Islam SN. Garlic: a broad spectrum antibacterial agent effective against common pathogenic bacteria. Fitoterapia 1996; LXVII(4): 374-376.

Ali M, Thomson M. Consumption of a garlic clove a day could be beneficial in preventing thrombosis. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 1995; 53: 211-212.

Apitz-Castro R, Badimon JJ, Badimon L. Effect of ajoene, the major antiplatelet compound from garlic, on platelet thrombus formation. Thrombosis Research 1992; 68: 145-155.

Aqel MB, Gharaibah MN, Salhab AS. Direct relaxant effects of garlic juice on smooth and cardiac muscles. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1991; 33: 13-19.

Auer W, Eiber A, Hertkorn E, et al. Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: garlic helps in mild cases. The British Journal of Clinical Practice 1990; 44(8)(suppl 69): 3-6.

Barrie SA, Wright JV, Pizzorno JE. Effects of garlic oil on platelet aggregation, serum lipids and blood pressure in humans. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 1987; 2(1): 15-21.

Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998; 279(23): 1900-1902.

Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on blood lipids, blood sugar, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 1998; 58(4): 257-263.

Breithaupt-Grögler K, Ling M, Boudoulas H, et al. Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly. Circulation 1997; 96(8): 2649-2655.

Cellini L, Di Campli E, Masulli M, et al. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by garlic extract (Allium sativum). FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 1996; 13: 273-277.

Chung JG, Chen GW, Wu LT, et al. Effects of garlic compounds diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide on arylamine n-acetyltransferase activity in strains of Helicobacter pylori from peptic ulcer patients. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 1998; XXVI (3/4): 353-364.

Das I, Khan NS, Sooranna SR. Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basis for its therapeutic applications. Current Medical Research and Opinion 1995; 13(5): 257-263.

De A Santos OS, Johns RA. Effects of garlic powder and garlic oil preparations on blood lipids, blood pressure and well-being. British Journal of Clinical Research 1995; 6: 91-100.

Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, et al. Garlic and its significance for the prevention of cancer in humans: a critical view. Br J Cancer 1993; 67: 424-429.

Efendy JL, Simmons DL, Campbell GR, et al. The effect of the aged garlic extract, ‘Kyolic,’ on the development of experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1997; 132: 37-42.

Ernst E. Can Allium vegetables prevent cancer? Phytomedicine 1997; 4(1): 79-83.

Gebhardt R. Multiple inhibitory effects of garlic extracts on cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatocytes. Lipids 1993; 28(7): 613-619.

Hertog MGL, Feskens EJM, Hollman PCH, et al. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen elderly study. The Lancet 1993; 342: 1007-1011.

Ide N, Nelson AB. Aged garlic extract and its constituents inhibit Cu2+-induced oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Planta Med 1997; 63: 263-264.

Ide N, Lau BHS. Garlic compounds protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced injury. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997; 49: 908-911.

Imai J, Ide N, Nagae S, et al. Antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of aged garlic and its constituents. Planta Med 1994; 60: 417-420.

Issacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasm lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 1189-1194.

Jung EM, Jung F, Mrowietz C, et al. Influence of garlic powder on cutaneous microcirculation: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study in apparently healthy subjects. Arzneim.- Forsch./Drug Res. 1991; 41(1), Nr 6 : 626-630.

Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Jung EM, et al. Effects of garlic coated tablets in peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Clin Investig 1993; 71: 383-386.

Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Pindur G, et al. Effect of garlic on thrombocyte aggregation, microcirculation, and other risk factors. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy, and Toxicology 1991; 29(4): 151-155.

Kyo E, Uda N, Kakimoto M, et al.Anti-allergic effects of aged garlic extract. Phytomedicine 1997; 4(4): 335-340.

Lau BHS, Lam F, Wang-Cheng R. Effect of an odor-modified garlic preparation on blood lipids. Nutrition Research 1987; 7: 139-149.

Lau BHS. Detoxifying, radioprotective, and phagocyte-enhancing effects of garlic. International Clinical Nutrition Review 1989; 9(1): 27-31.

Lee ES, Steiner M, Lin R. Thioallyl compounds: potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1994; 1221: 73-77.

Mader FH. Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Arzneimittel-Forschung Drug Research 1990; 40(II):10.Martin N, Bardisa L, Pantoja C, et al. Anti-arrhythmic profile of a garlic dialysate assayed in dogs and isolated atrial preparations. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1994; 43: 1-8.

McMahon FG, Vargas R. Can garlic lower blood pressure? A pilot study. Pharmacotherapy 1993; 13(4): 406-407.

Morcos NC. Modulation of lipid profile by fish oil and garlic combination. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997; 89(10): 673-678.

Moriguchi T, Saito H, Nishiyama N. Anti-ageing effect of aged garlic extract in the inbred brain atrophy mouse model. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 1997; 24: 235-242.

Morris J, Burke V, Mori TA, et al. Effects of garlic extract on platelet aggregation: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 1995; 22: 414-417.

Nagourney RA. Garlic: medicinal food or nutritious medicine? Journal of Medicinal Food 1998; 1(1): 13-28.

Nakagawa S, Kasuga S, Matsuura H. Prevention of liver damage by aged garlic extract and its components in mice. Phytotherapy Research 1(0):50-53.

Neil A, Silagy C. Garlic: its cardio-protective properties. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1994; 5: 6-10.

Neil H, Silagy CA, Lancaster T, et al. Garlic powder in the treatment of moderate hyperlipidaemia: a controlled trial and meta-analysis. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London 1996; 30(4): 329-334.

Okuhara T. A clinical study of garlic extract on peripheral circulation. Japanese Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1994; 22(8): 3695-3701. (English translation)

Orekhov AN, Tertov VV, Sobenin IA, et al. Direct anti-atherosclerosis-related effects of garlic. Annals of Medicine 1995; 27: 63-65.

Phelps S, Harris WS. Garlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility. Lipids 1993; 28(5): 475-477.

Pinto JT, Qiao C, Xing J, et al. Effects of garlic thioallyl derivatives on growth, glutathione concentration, and polyamine formation of human prostate carcinoma cells in culture. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 398-405.

Reuter HD. Allium sativum and Allium ursinum: part 2, pharmacology and medicinal application. Phytomedicine 1995; 2(1): 73-91.

Scharfenberg K, Ryll T, Wagner R, et al. Injuries to cultivated BJA-B cells by ajoene, a garlic-derived natural compound: cell viability, glutathione metabolism, and pools of acidic amino acids. Journal of Cellular Physiology 1994; 158: 55-60.

Sheela CG, Augusti KT. Effects of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide isolated from Allium sativum Linn and gugulipid on some enzymes and fecal excretions of bile acids and sterols in cholesterol fed rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 1995; 33: 749-751.

Sigounas G, Hooker J, Anagnostou A, et al. S-Allylmercaptocysteine inhibits cell proliferation and reduces the viability of erythroleukemia, breast, and prostate cancer cell lines. Nutrition and Cancer 1997; 27(2): 186-191.

Silagy CA, Neil HAW. Garlic as a lipid-lowering agent – a meta-analysis. The Journal of the Royal College of Physicians 1994; 28(1): 39-45.

Silagy CA, Neil HAW. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure. Journal of Hypertension 1994; 12(4): 14-18.

Singh KV, Shukla NP. Activity on multiple resistant bacteria of garlic (Allium sativum) extract. Fitoterapia 1984; LV(5): 313-315.

Sivam GP, Lampe JW, Ulness B, et al. Helicobacter pyloriin vitro susceptibility to garlic (Allium sativum) extract. Nutrition and Cancer 1997; 27(2): 118-121.

Steiner M, Lin RS. Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 1998; 31: 904-908.

Steiner M, Khan AH, Lin RIS. A double-blind crossover study in moderately hypercholesterolemic men that comparedthe effect of aged garlic extract and placebo administration on blood lipids and platelet function. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64; 866-870.

Steinmetz KA, Kushi LH, Bostick RM, et al. Vegetables, fruit, and colon cancer in the Iowa women’s health study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994; 139(1): 1-15.

Ushijima M, Sumioka I, Kakimoto M, et al. Effect of garlic and garlic preparations on physiological and psychological stress in mice. Phytotherapy Research 1997; II: 226-230.

Vorberg G, Schneider B. Therapy with garlic: results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The British Journal of Clinical Practice 1990; 44(8) suppl 69: 7-11.

Wargovich MJ. Diallyl sulfide, a flavor component of garlic (Allium sativum), inhibits dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. Carcinogenesis 1987; 8(3): 487-489.

Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119: 599-605.

Weber ND, Andersen DO, North JA, et al. In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds. Planta Med 1992; 58: 417-423.

Welch C, Wuarin L, Sidell N. Antiproliferative effect of the garlic compound S-allyl cysteine on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Cancer Letters 1992; 63: 211-219.

Yoshida S, Kasuga S, Hayashi N, et al. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1987; 53(3): 615-617.

You W-C, Blot WJ, Chang Y-S, et al. Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1989; 81(2): 162-164.