Herb Research Foundation
"Improving world health and well being through herbs"


(Echinacea spp)


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Bauer R. Echinacea drugs -- effects and active ingredients [German]. Z Ärztl Fortbild 1996; 90: 111-115. (German paper with English abstract)

Bauer VR, Jurcic K, Puhlmann J, et al. In vivo and in vitro immunological studies with Echinacea extracts [German].Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res 1988; 38(I)(2): 276-281. (German paper with English translation)

Bone K. Echinacea: when should it be used? The European Journal of Herbal Medicine 1998; 3(3): 13-17.

Bräunig B, Dorn M, Limburg E, et al. Echinacea purpureae radix for strengthening the immune response in flu-like infections [German].Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie 1992; 13: 7-13. (English translation of German paper)

Brinkeborn RM, Shah DV, Degenring FH. Echinaforce® and other Echinacea fresh plant preparations in the treatment of the common cold. Phytomedicine 1999; 6(1): 1-6.

Brinkeborn R, Shah D, Geissbühler S, et al. Echinaforce® in the treatment of acute colds [German]. Schweiz Zschr GanzheitsMedizin 1998; 10: 26-29. (English translation of German paper)

Chavez ML, Chavez PI. Echinacea. Hospital Pharmacy 1998; 33(2): 180-188.

Coeugniet E, Kühnast R. Relapsing candidiasis: Adjuvant immune therapy with different Echinacin® dosage forms [German]. Therapiewoche 1986; 36: 3352-3358. (German paper with English summary)

Dorn M, Knick E, Lewith G. Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of Echinaceae pallidae radix in upper respiratory tract infections. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1997; 5(1): 40-42.

Facino RM, Carini M, Aldini G, et al. Echinacoside and caffeoyl conjugates protect collagen from free radical-induced degradation: a potential use of Echinacea extracts in the prevention of skin photodamage. Planta Med 1995;61: 510-514.

Hoheisel O, Sandberg M, Bertram S, et al. Echinagard treatment shortens the course of the common cold: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Research 1997; 9: 261-268.

Jurcic K, Melchart D, Holzmann M. Two proband studies for the stimulation of granulocyte phagocytosis through Echinacea extract-containing preparations [German]. Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie 1989; 10: 67-70. (German paper with English summary)

Lersch C, Zeuner M, Bauer A, et al. Nonspecific immunostimulation with low doses of cyclophosphamide (LDCY), thymostimulin, and Echinacea purpurea extracts (Echinacin) in patients with far advanced colorectal cancers: preliminary results. Cancer Investigation 1992; 10(5): 343-348.

Melchart D, Walther E, Linde K, et al. Echinacea root extracts for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections. Arch Fam Med 1998; 7: 541-545.

Schöneberger D. The influence of immune-stimulating effects of pressed juice from Echinacea purpurea on the course and severity of colds [German]. Forum Immunologie 1992; 8: 2-11. (German paper with full English translation)

See DM, Broumand N, Sahl L, et al. In vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Immunopharmacology 1997; 35: 229-235.

Speroni E, Crespi-Perellino N, Guerra MC, et al. Skin effects of Echinacea pallida Nutt. root extract. Fitoterapia 1998; LXI (5):36.

Stolze H, Forth H. A treatment with antibiotics can be optimized by additional immunostimulation [German]. Der Kassenarzt 1983; 23(50): 43-48. (English translation of German paper)

Zoutewelle G, Van Wijk R. Effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts on fibroblast populated collagen lattice contraction. Phytotherapy Research 1990; 4(2): 77-81.