Herb Research Foundation
"Improving world health and well being through herbs"

Black cohosh

(Cimicifuga racemosa)


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Cech R. Balancing conservation with utilization: restoring populations of commercially valuable medicinal herbs in forests and agroforests. United Plant Savers Newsletter Winter 1999: 1-4.

Daiber W. Climacteric complaints: success without using hormones! [German] Arztl Prax 35 1983; 65: 1946-1947 (English translation of German paper).

Duker EM, Kopanski L, Jarry H, et al. Effects of extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta Med 1991; 57: 420-424.

Einer-Jensen N, Zhao J, Andersen KP, et al. Cimicifuga and Melbrosia lack oestrogenic effects in mice and rats. Maturitas 1996; 25: 149-153.

Gruenwald J. Standardized black cohosh (Cimicifuga) extract clinical monograph. Quarterly Review of Natural Medicine Summer 1998; 117-125.

Hirabayashi T, Ochiai H, Sakai S, et al. Inhibitory effect of ferulic acid and isoferulic acid on murine interleukin-8 production in response to influenza infections in vitro and in vivo. Planta Med 1995; 61: 221-226.

Jarry H, Harnischfeger G. Untersuchungen zur endokrinen Wirksamkeit von Inhaltsstoffen aus Cimicfuga racemosa. 1. Einfluss auf die Serumspiegel von Hypophysenhormonen ovariektomierter Ratten [Studies on the endocrine effects of the contents of Cimicifuga racemosa: 1. Influence on the serum concentration of pituitary hormones in ovariectomized rats]. Planta Med 1985; 51(1): 46-49. (German paper with English summary)

Jarry H, Gorkow CH, Wuttke W. Treatment of menopausal symptoms with extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa: in vivo and in vitro evidence for estrogenic activity [German]. Phytopharmaka Forsch 1995; 99-112. (English translation of German paper)

Lehmann-Willenbrock E, Riedel H-H. Clinical and endocrinologic examinations concerning therapy of climacteric symptoms following hysterectomy with remaining ovaries [German]. Zent Bl Gynäkol, 1988; 110: 611-618. (English translation of German paper)

Li JX, Kadota S, Li HY, et al. Effects of Cimicifugae rhizoma on serum calcium and phosphate levels in low calcium dietary rats and on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats. Phytomedicine 1996/1997; 3(4): 379-385.

Meldrum DR, Tataryn IV, Frumar AM, et al. Gonadotropins, estrogens and adrenal steroids during menopausal hot flashes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980; 50: 685-689.

Pethö A. Menopausal complaints: Change-over of a hormone treatment to a herbal gynecological remedy practicable? [German]. Arztl Praxis 1987; 47: 1551-1553. (English translation of German paper).

Stoll W. Phytopharmacon influences atrophic vaginal epithelium: double-blind study Cimicifuga vs. estrogenic substances [German]. Therapeutikon 1; September 1987: 23-30. (English translation of German paper)

Stolze H. An alternative to treat menopausal complaints [German]. Gyne 1982; 1: 14-16. (English translation of German paper)

Struck D, Tegtmeier M, Harnischfeger G. Flavones in extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa. Planta Med 1997; 63: 289.